Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany. (). (abridged) by Galileo Galilei. To the Most Serene Grand Duchess Mother: Some years ago, as Your. In , Galileo wrote a letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany in order to show how one could argue for the heliocentric system. “Contrary to the sense of the Bible and the intention of the holy Fathers they would have us altogether abandon reason and the evidence of.
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The geocentric view had been dominant since the time of Aristotle, and the controversy engendered by Galileo’s presentation of heliocentrism as proven fact resulted in the Catholic Church’s prohibiting its advocacy as empirically proven fact, because galilep was not empirically proven at the time and was contrary to the literal meaning of Scripture. But mathematics is written for mathematicians, by whom, if I am not deceived, these labors of mine will be recognized as contributing something to their domain, as also to that of the Church over which Your Holiness now reigns.
And since he had assumed his laborious enterprise by order of the Supreme Pontiff, he dedicated this book On the celestial revolutions to Pope Paul III. Hence they are forced to interpret the words in the midst of the heavens a little knottily, saying that this means no more than that the sun stood still while it was in our hemisphere; that is, above our horizon. Yet I speak always with caution and reserve, and not with such great affection for my own inventions as to prefer them above those of others, or in the belief that nothing can be brought forth that will be still more in conformity with the intention of the Bible.
Nathan Chan rated it really liked it May 09, In it Sizzi had reported, though rather cryptically, upon some French observations concerning sunspots, and it was probably this which led Galileo to his knowledge of the tilt of the sun’s axis.
If the sun had been at the meridian, it seems improbable that it was necessary to pray for a lengthened day in order to pursue victory in battle, the miracle having occurred around the summer solstice when the days are longest, and the space of seven hours remaining before nightfall being sufficient.
The most holy Fathers did not share their views.
Letter to Madame Christina of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Moreover, we are unable to affirm that all interpreters of gwlileo Bible speak by divine inspiration, for if that were so there would exist no differences between them about the sense of a given passage. From this I do not mean to infer that we need not have an extraordinary esteem for the passages of holy Scripture.
I shall say further that not only respect for the incapacity of the vulgar, but also current opinion in those times, made the sacred authors accommodate ducness in matters unnecessary to salvation more to accepted usage than to the true essence of things.
But I do not feel obliged to believe that that same God who has endowed chriwtina with senses, reason, and intellect has intended to forgo their use and by some other means to give us knowledge which we can attain by them.
Shelley marked it as to-read Dec 21, Your Highness may galilwo see how irregularly those persons proceed who in physical disputes arrange scriptural passages and often those ill-understood by them in the front rank of their arguments. Now the Bible, merely to condescend to popular capacity, has not hesitated to obscure some very important pronouncements, attributing to God himself some qualities extremely remote from and even contrary to His essence. And as to the propositions which are stated but not rigorously demonstrated, anything contrary to the Bible involved by them must be held undoubtedly false and should be proved so by every possible means.
Augustine ‘s De Mirabilibus Sacras Scripturae.
There are no discussion topics on this galuleo yet. And the motion or rest of the lettdr and the sun is so closely linked with the things just named, that without a determination of the one, neither side can be taken in the other matters. The Bishop of Avila referred to was Alfonso Tostadoand the reference is to his twenty-second and twenty-fourth questions on the tenth chapter of Joshua.
This difference was well understood by the learned and holy Fathers, as proven by their having taken great pains in refuting philosophical fallacies. There are men who, in defense of propositions which they do not understand, apply—and in a way commit—some text of the Bible, and then proceed to magnify their original error by adducing other passages that are even less understood than the first.
To this end they hurled various charges and published numerous writings filled with vain arguments, and they made the grave mistake of sprinkling these with passages taken from places in the Bible which they had failed to understand properly, and which were ill suited to their purposes.
And of these she is very solicitous, like a mother desiring to recover her children into her lap. It is sufficiently obvious that to attribute motion to the sun and rest to the earth was therefore necessary lest the shallow minds of the common people should become confused, obstinate, and contumacious in yielding assent to the principal articles that are absolutely matters of faith. And I may go on to say that they left this out because they had no occasion to reflect upon the matter and discuss it; their opinion was admitted only as current, and not as analyzed and determined.
Hence we need not concern ourselves with the shallowness of those men whom grave and holy authors rightly dchess, and of whom in particular St.
Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina – Wikipedia
Open Preview See a Problem? From this and other passages the intention of the holy Fathers appears to be if I am not mistaken that in questions of nature which are not matters of faith it is first to be considered whether anything grabd demonstrated beyond doubt or known by sense-experience, or whether such knowledge or proof is possible; if it is, then, being the gift of God, it ought to be applied to find out the true senses of holy Scripture in those passages which vhristina might seem to declare differently.
Galileo’s family was informed that their son was in danger of flunking out.
Next we come to the proposition glaileo agreement on the part of the Fathers, when they all accept a physical proposition from the Bible in the same sense, must give that sense authority to such a degree that belief in it becomes a matter of faith.