Aug 3, Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam. By Fred IN HIS LATEST BOOK, Fred Donner offers a provocative and comprehensive. Muhammad and the Believers has ratings and 33 reviews. Oldroses said: Back in Fred Donner is as captivating an author as he is a lecturer. This book is . Donner, Fred M. Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam. Cambridge, MA, and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, xviii+
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It was a typical Arabian haram in which violence and bloodshed were forbidden. The other ‘pillars’ of Islam- fasting and pilgrimage- are not requirements for entering paradise in the Qur’an. Rather misleading about the motives of the early Islamic expansionism due to rather unhelpful and unconvincing emphasis on the ecumenical objectives that supposedly motivated the movement.
Muhammad and the Believers – Fred M. Donner – Google Books
An interesting book that seriously deals with the great distance of the ‘primary’ sources of Islam from the actual historical events.
A number of such apocalyptic scenarios were generated by members of religious communities that faced Byzantine oppression or harassment, such as the monophysite churches of Egypt, Syria, and Armenia, and have an unmistakably vindictive quality. Donner mengupas bagaimana awal Muhammad memulai gerakan ini, yg tujuannya mengembalikan umat kepada monoteisme dan sadar bahwa pagan adalah kesalahan.
Zoroastrianism Maz- daisma version of the ancient traditional religion of Iran, was the most important faith in the empire and dominant especially on the Iranian plateau. As we have seen, some Christian groups especially engaged in stringent, even ascetic, reli- gious observance on the eve of Islam. Although by that time mainstream Jews and many Christians considered active prophecy to be a thing of the past, prophecy con- tinued to be practiced by a few groups like the Montanists, a small Christian sect found mainly in Asia Minor.
Shortly after concluding it, Muhammad or- ganized a large expeditionary force and marched with it on the Jew- ish oasis of Khaybar; this town had long been a key ally of Mecca in its struggle with Muhammad, but it was not explicitly protected by the agreement. As a young man, Muhammad entered into the commercial and cultic life of Mecca. The Believers crossed these unmarked frontiers, however, and began to raid and integrate the populations on the bor- ders of the great empires themselves, many of whom already spoke Arabic.
Sign In or Create an Account. This is Fred M. The Byzantine Empire was actually the continuation of the older Roman Empire. This, however, is surely going too far and in its way is just as uncritical an approach as unquestioning acceptance of everything in the traditional accounts.
Reading this book was not unlike reading a physics textbook. They also participated in an annual trade fair held at a place called c Ukaz, near Mecca, at which merchants from many parts of Arabia gath- ered.
See Appendix A for the full text of the umma document.
The last ByzantineSasanian War ca c e. Muham- mad seems to have muhammda particularly interested in expanding to the north; we have seen how, already in the years before the conquest of Mecca, he had dispatched a raid or several raids? Sep 08, Tracey rated it did not like it Shelves: I am grateful to the National En- dowment for the Humanities, an agency of the U.
Still, this is the only respectful way to represent the dates, so I wouldn’t suggest changing it. Crone raised important theological issues with this title, suggesting that the ruler of the believers also held the religious authority to form a new religion that gradually became Islam.
Muhammad and the Believers
Elsewhere, rainfall is scant and irregular. I did note a bit of bias in both directions Donner seemed to switch around, playing the Devil’s advocate with himself but overall, he kept it nice and objective. Byzantine Orthodox Christians were predominant in Ana- tolia, the Balkans, Greece, and Palestine, and in urban centers elsewhere where imperial authority was strong. Montgomery Watt, reflecting the regnant position of the social sciences in the middle of the twentieth century, argued donnfr the movement was engendered by social and economic stresses in the society in which Muhammad lived; and numerous others, in- cluding L.
From their per- spective, the key point about Christ was that in him God had truly experienced human agony and death, but being God he was able to i ise from the dead. Books by Fred M. This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. Moreover, if the Believers thought that they were vonner destined to inherit the Earth, there could be no better place to begin than in fertile Syria. Several early South Arabian kingdoms, beljevers thrived in the first millennium b.
Open Preview See a Problem? So, on that day, when the trumpet is sounded, the stars will fall and grow dark, the heavens will be torn open, the mountains will simply vanish, flowing away like sand or water. Thanks for telling us about the problem. This photograph of the oasis of Jabrin, in Oman, conveys some idea of the general appearance of palm oases such as Yathrib, with houses of mud-brick and garden plots scattered loosely among large groves of date palms.
Verily, God loves the [God-i fearing.
The idea that the Last Day was near is mentioned explicitly in several verses: What is problematic in this narrative is that there is scant evidence from archaeology or contemporary sources to prove this was a conquest rather ans less interesting taking over of a weak hegemony ready to be taken.
Donner covers more than has been mentioned here.
The results, while well reasoned and articulate, are dependent on the sources considered authentic and credible. As an example, the Qur’an gives an anecdote of Jews turning into pigs and apes scholars have shown this to derive from a tale in the Talmudbut is this to mean all Jews are the descendants of these creatures as taught by some Imams this dayor is it an isolated case unrelated to the rest of the Jewish people?
Hardcoverpages. This supposition will surprise Muslims and non-Muslims alike. Passages such as these suggest, again, that the Believers were concerned with what they saw as the rampant sinfulness of the world around them and wished to live by a higher standard in their own behavior.
This central panel from a wall relief engraved by llii’ Sasanians at Bishapur, Iran, commemorates the great king Shapur Is victory over three Roman emperors. It was not too soon, for by this time Abu Bakr and the Believers in Medina needed reinforcements. A glaring issue frrd this whole hypothesis however is how to account for the Qur’an’s several calumnies against Christians and Jews, if donnee same people were equal members of the Believers movement.
Indeed, one apoca- lyptic notion linked the Byzantine emperor himself directly to the events of the Last Judgment.
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